How Is Rum Made?

Rum is a distilled spirit made by fermenting sugarcane juice. The sugarcane used for rum production takes up to two years to reach maturity and the distilled liquid made by fermenting the sugarcane juice is aged in oak barrels.

In this article, we are focusing on the production methods of rum. Read to know.

Steps In Manufacture Of Rum

Here are the steps in rum production.

Sugar Extraction

The initial step in rum making is the extraction of juice from mature sugarcane. The cane is chopped in the sugar mill to extract the juice out of it after which the juice is boiled to bring down its water content. The syrup that is left behind has 30% sugar.

The sugar syrup is then clarified and mixed with sugar crystals that act as the core on which the sugar syrup crystallizes. The mixture is then boiled, and cooled afterwards, to allow the enlargement of the sugar crystals. Sugar that is sold in the markets is produced by repeating the above discussed process a couple of times and the leftover thick black liquid known as sugar molasses is used to make rum.


The sugar cane derivative undergoes fermentation on adding naturally occurring yeast. A beer like ‘wash’ that has 5-10% alcohol by volume is the resultant of the fermentation process. Yeast performs the function of converting sugar to ethanol.

The type of yeast and the mode of fermentation depends on the type of rum that is to be produced. To ensure that you get the best quality rum while you buy liquor online, make sure to choose the best brands.


 Distillation works on the principle that alcohol has a lower boiling point than that of water. The boiling point of alcohol is 78.3 while that of water is 100. When you boil the mixture of alcohol and water and heat it to the boiling point of alcohol, the alcohol in the mixture vaporizes. The vapors can be collected and condensed to obtain pure alcohol. This is the basic working mechanism of distillation.

However, different types of alcohol and different flavor compounds require different temperatures. Pot stills or column stills are commonly used in the distillation process.


Regardless of the type of rum and whether they are distilled in pot or column stills, all rums are clear after the distillation process. They obtain their characteristic color during the ageing process inside oak casks. White rum is simple sugar cane distillate that is watered down and bottled.

Rum Blending

Blending is the final step among the processes that can alter the character of the drink. Light and dark rums of different ages are blended to form rum of desired flavor and alcohol content. Prune wine, sugar, spice, and flavorings are some of the additives used to enhance the flavor of rum.

In some rum, caramel will be added prior to bottling them to balance its color while some rum will be filtered using charcoal to remove excess color.

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